Cytotoxicity of selected medicinal plants extracts using the brine shrimp lethality assay from Samburu county

The bioactivity results in this study validate the use of the plants as herbal remedies by Samburu Traditional healers.

This test was carried out to assess the cytotoxicity bioassay of selected medicinal plants from Samburu County, Kenya.Materials and Methods:Selectedmedicinal plants namely Clerodendrum myricoides, (Hoecst) Vatke Carissa eduli(Forsk) vahl, Acassia tortilis(Fossk) Hayne Myrsine africanaL., Rhamnus staddoA. Rich, Rhamnus prinoidesL,herit, Psiadia arabicaJabb and Spach and Sansevierria enhribergiiBach were subjected to the Brineshrimp Lethality Test. Three dilutions of the aqueous, methanol/water (70/30) v/v and chloroform extracts were used five (5) tubes per dilution. Ten naupli were introduced per tube and mortality evaluated after 24hrs. Mortality data was analysed using the probit method of Finney Computor Programme.

The programme uses the number of dose level, the number of brine shrimp for every concentration, percent mortality for every concentration and dose level to calculate lethal concentration (LC50) and its 95 % confidence interval. Results:All the aqueous extracts had an LC50equal to or higher than 1000μg/ml which is considered non cytotoxic. The extracts showing a low LC50(< 1000) are likely candidates for cytotoxic or anticancer drugs and can be investigated further.

The extracts showing a high LC50(> 1000) can be used as non cytotoxic drugs and hence further investigations would be necessary. The bioactivity results in this study validates the use of the plants as herbal remedies by Samburu Traditional healers.



This study was conducted by Kamanja, IT; Mbaria, JM; Gathumbi, PK; Mbaabu, M; Kabasa, John D  and Kiama, SG.